By Dr. Shaminder Bhullar
A cataract is the most common cause of vision loss in people over age 40 and is the principal cause of blindness in the world. In fact, there are more cases of cataracts worldwide than there are of glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy combined.
Today, cataracts affect more than 22 million Americans age 40 and older. And as the U.S. population ages, more than 30 million Americans are expected to have cataracts by the year 2020.
Types of Cataracts Include:
• A subcapsular cataract occurs at the back of the lens. People with diabetes or those taking high doses of steroid medications have a greater risk of developing a subcapsular cataract.
• A nuclear cataract forms deep in the central zone (nucleus) of the lens. Nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging.
• A cortical cataract is characterized by white, wedge-like opacities that start in the periphery of the lens and work their way to the center in a spoke-like fashion. This type of cataract occurs in the lens cortex, which is the part of the lens that surrounds the central nucleus.
Symptoms and Signs of Cataracts
A cataract starts out small and at first has little effect on your vision. You may notice that your vision is blurred a little, like looking through a cloudy piece of glass or viewing an impressionist painting.
A cataract may make light from the sun or a lamp seem too bright or glaring. Or you may notice when you drive at night that the oncoming headlights cause more glare than before. Colors may not appear as bright as they once did.
The type of cataract you have will affect exactly which symptoms you experience and how soon they will occur. When a nuclear cataract first develops, it can bring about a temporary improvement in your near vision, called “second sight.”
Unfortunately, the improved vision is short-lived and will disappear as the cataract worsens. On the other hand, a subcapsular cataract may not produce any symptoms until it’s well-developed.
If you think you have a cataract, see an eye doctor for an exam to find out for sure.
What Causes Cataracts?
The lens inside the eye works much like a camera lens, focusing light onto the retina for clear vision. It also adjusts the eye’s focus, letting us see things clearly both up close and far away.
The lens is mostly made of water and protein. The protein is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and lets light pass through it.
But as we age, some of the protein may clump together and start to cloud a small area of the lens. This is a cataract, and over time, it may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see.
No one knows for sure why the eye’s lens changes as we age, forming cataracts. But researchers worldwide have identified factors that may cause cataracts or are associated with cataract development. Besides advancing age, cataract risk factors include:
• Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and other sources
• Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications
• Statin medicines used to reduce cholesterol
• Previous eye injury or inflammation
• Previous eye surgery
• Hormone replacement therapy
• Significant alcohol consumption
• High myopia
• Family history
When symptoms begin to appear, you may be able to improve your vision for a while using new glasses, strong bifocals, magnification, appropriate lighting or other visual aids.
Think about surgery when your cataracts have progressed enough to seriously impair your vision and affect your daily life. Many people consider poor vision an inevitable fact of aging, but cataract surgery is a simple, relatively painless procedure to regain vision.
Cataract surgery is very successful in restoring vision. In fact, it is the most frequently performed surgery in the United States, with more than three million Americans undergoing cataract surgery each year. Nine out of 10 people who have cataract surgery regain very good vision, somewhere between 20/20 and 20/40. We are fortunate to have some of the best cataract surgeons in the country in Sarasota and Manatee counties.
Dr. Shaminder Bhullar is a board certified ophthalmologist and fellowship trained retina specialist. He has authored numerous papers and presented at national meetings. He is a member of the Florida Medical Association, American Medical Association, American Academy of Ophthalmology, and American Society of Retina Specialists.
Dr. Bhullar is proud to be able to offer patients of Manatee and Sarasota County the latest treatment options, state of the art diagnostic technology and the most up to date medical and surgical interventions for diseases of the retina, macula and vitreous. He and his staff at the Retina Treatment Center are passionate about providing patients the highest quality of care, with the compassion and respect they deserve.
For more information, please visit retinatreatmentcenter.com, or call our office at (941) 251-4930.